In the time of the Prophet Muhammad, the Arabian peninsula was next to two superpowers, namely the Roman Empire (Byzantium), which was Christian in the West, and the Persian Empire, which was religious in the Majusian (fire worshipers and idols) in the East.
Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman) was centered in Constantinople (present-day Turkey).
In 614 – 615 AD In a decisive battle in the Dead Sea Basin, the Persian army defeated the Roman army. Persian troops occupy Jerusalem and Damascus.
News of this Roman defeat to Mecca, this made the Quraysh unbelievers proud and saddened the Prophet and his companions. The Musrikin at that time mocked Muslims because the Roman Romans were defeated by the Persian Magi, in their minds this meant that those who accepted the Book were more despicable than those who worshiped fire and idols.
Narrated by Ibn Abi Hatim sourced from Ibn Syihab. It was also narrated by Ibn Jarir who came from ‘Ikrimah, Yahya bin Ya’mar, and Qatadah, that when Muslims had not yet migrated to Medina, the polytheists said vehemently: “We know that the Romans (the scribes who believed to the Prophet Jesus as) was defeated by the Magi (fire worshipers). And you think you will beat us with the reason that you have faith in the Book revealed to your Prophet. How do you see now, after the Magi defeated the Romans, even though they (the Romans) were scribes?. Therefore we too can defeat you as Persia defeated Rome. “
Then Allah revealed Surah Ar Ruum verses 1-5 promising a Roman victory in the near future ..
These verses were revealed around 620 AD, almost seven years after the defeat of the Christian Byzantines from Persians. These verses predict that Rome will soon win. Rome, at that time, had suffered a terrible defeat. It seemed almost impossible for them even to maintain their existence, and even less likely to win.
Not only the Persians, but also the Avars, Slavs, and Lombards posed a severe threat to the Byzantine Empire. The Avars had come to reach the boundary wall of Constantinople. The Byzantine Emperor, Heraclius, had ordered that the gold and silver in the church be melted down and turned into money to finance the army. Many governors revolted against Emperor Heraclius, and the Empire was at the point of collapse. Mesopotamia, Cilicia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and Armenia, which were initially controlled by Byzantium, were invaded by the Persians. (Warren Treadgold, A History of the Byzantine State and Society, Stanford University Press, 1997, pp. 287-299.)
This victory seemed so impossible that the Arab polytheists used this verse as an object of ridicule. They believe that the victory proclaimed by the Qur’an will never come true.
About seven years after the first verse of Surat Ar Ruum was revealed, in December 627 AD, the decisive war between the Byzantine Empire and Persia took place in Nineveh. And this time, the Byzantine army surprisingly defeated the Persians. A few months later, the Persians had to agree with Byzantium, which required them to return the territory they had taken from Byzantium. (Warren Treadgold, A History of the Byzantine State and Society, Stanford University Press, 1997, pp. 287-299.)
Finally, the “victory of the Romans” announced by God in the Qur’an miraculously came true.
These verses become one of the strongest proofs that the Qur’an was not written by the Prophet Muhammad.
If the Prophet Muhammad, or those around him who composed the Koran, why should they take the risk by predicting something, which if proven wrong, could undermine all the religious foundations that it brings?
The Qur’an revealed by Allah SWT, Lord of the Worlds, the All-Knowing, His knowledge includes everything, knowing the past, knowing what is happening now, and knowing what will happen (the future).
Time is His creation, then Allah is certainly not bound by time.
The Lowest Land On Earth
Another miracle revealed in this verse is information about geographical facts that could not be known by anyone at that time.
In the third verse of Surat Ar Ruum, it is reported that Rome was defeated in the lowest area on earth. The phrase “Adnal Ardli” in Arabic, is interpreted as “a place near” in many translations. But this is not the literal meaning of the sentence, but rather an interpretation of it. The word “Adna” in Arabic is taken from the phrase “Dani”, which means “low” and “Ardl” which means “earth”. Therefore, the phrase “Adnal Ardli” means “the lowest place on earth”.
Most interestingly, the crucial stages in the war between the Byzantine and Persian Empires, when Byzantium was defeated and lost Jerusalem, really took place at the lowest point on earth. The intended area is the Dead Sea basin, which is located at the meeting point of the territory owned by Syria, Palestine, and Jordan. “The Dead Sea,” located 395 meters below sea level, is the lowest area on earth.
This means that Byzantium was defeated in the lowest part of the earth, precisely as stated in this verse.
The most exciting thing in this fact is that the height of the Dead Sea can only be measured by modern measurement techniques. Previously, no one could know that this was the lowest region on the surface of the earth. However, in the Qur’an, this area is stated to be the lowest point on earth. Thus, this provides further proof that the Qur’an is divine revelation.
Subhanallah, the Most Holy of Allah, the Truest of Allah with all His words.